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Embryology of diaphragm

diaphragm embryology
The diaphragm is formed by the fusion of the following embryonic structures 1)      Septum transversum 2)      Pleuroperitoneal membranes 3)      Dorsal mesentery of esophagus 4)      Dorsal and dorsolateral body wall   The intraembryonic coelom is initially a single space which is later divided into pericardial, peritoneal and pleural space. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the peritoneal cavity (1). The septum transversum which is a mesodermal layer in the vicinity of the...

Vitamin D Supplementation Found Useful in Severe, Therapy Resistant Asthma

vitamin D for asthma
A recent study published in the current issue of the American Thoracic Society’s "American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine" studied the effect of vitamin D on the pathophysiology of asthma in children with severe, therapy resistant asthma (STRA). They found that low levels of vitamin D in the blood of children suffering from STRA may cause structural changes in the airway muscles resulting in breathlessness. Though treatment with corticosteroids is the standard way of treating...

Hypoxic Ventilatory Response

Hypoxia Hypoxia refers to the decreased availability of oxygen at the cellular level which impairs normal aerobic metabolism.  The aerobic metabolism depends on continuous supply of oxygen and lack of oxygen diverts the metabolism to inefficient anaerobic pathways in addition to producing harmful reactive oxygen species. Ventilation Ventilation refers to the movement of air in and out of the lungs and depends on the rhythmic inflation and deflation of the lungs. Hypoxic Ventilatory Response...

Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction

bronchoscopic lung volume reduction
What is bronchoscopic lung volume reduction? COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is an obstructive airway disease where there is resistance to the outflow of air from the lung. This leads to retention of air within the lungs and the characteristic hyperinflation with expansion of the chest wall. The respiratory muscles including diaphragm are stretched out, limiting their ability to inhale and exhale air as they operate at a disadvantageous length-tension curve.  The residual volume...

History of Bronchoscopy

History of Bronchoscopy  1897  Gustav Killian does the first rigid brochoscopy to remove a piece of bone from the right bronchus. Killian is considered as the 'Father of Bronchoscopy  1907  First book on bronchoesophagology is published by Chevalier Jackson who was recognised as father of American Bronchoesophagology  1955  Transbronchial needle aspiration of mediastinal mass was done by Euler using a rigid bronchoscope  1965  Transbronchial lung...